Tuesday, May 26, 2020
One Day in Doctors Life July, 3d, 1863 I have not slept today at all. The wounded are brought every minute and I now have a feeling that this battle will never end. I suppose I must be tired, but after having seen so much death, I can hardly feel anything. I know I must save peoples lives and this is what I have been doing here, so close to each battle field, since this horrific war started. But is it really important now? What is the use of saving lives if those who survive are thrown again into the massacre of war which destroys my country? General Lee believed that the Battle of Gettysburg will lead to our victory, but it is clear now he has been mistaken. Casualties make thousands, not hundreds. I am operating and operating, amputating the pieces of flesh, which used to be the feet that could walk along a beautiful spring meadow, the hands and arms, which could hug their beloved ones and shake the hand of a friend, hearing the hearts full of love and fear, which stop beating, closing the eyes which will never see the sky again. I know why we are at war. We have no choice but to protect the way we live and the land we love. But isnt the cost too high? Cant we really find any way to compromise, to accept and understand that fact that political differences are killing our souls and devastating the country we love so much? I wish I was deaf and could escape the moans of the wounded and the sound of the rifle and artillery fire, which means more losses to the Confederate army. I must get back to the surgery, back into the national nightmare. Oh, Lord, help us, as we can no longer help ourselves.
Friday, May 15, 2020
The Immorality of Abortion Religion, personal rights, or science normally fuels the debate on abortion. However abortion can be looked at philosophically and debated whether it is moral or immoral. In this paper I will argue that abortion is immoral because it deprives the zygote from any future life. In The Journal of Philosophy, Don Marquis argues in his essay, Ã¢â¬Å"Why Abortion is ImmoralÃ¢â¬ that abortion is wrong because it deprives the fetus of a Ã¢â¬Ëfuture like oursÃ¢â¬â¢. I agree with his claim, but feel his overall argument is weak because of word fetus and the statement Ã¢â¬Ëfuture like oursÃ¢â¬â¢. His use of the word fetus was told to represent all stages of pregnancy, since that was not his debate. However in myÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Furthermore, Marquis knew he would have objections to his argument so he went ahead in his essay and wrote off a few. One objection he thought of would be the issue of animal rights and if killing them would be immoral as well because you are depriving them of their futures too. Marquis handles this question by explaining that it is in no relation to the subject at hand and that animal rights are a whole other controversial issue. He expresses that his dismissal of that account Ã¢â¬Å"should not reflect ba dly on this sketch of an elementary theory of the wrongness of killing that it is indeterminate with respect to some very difficult issues regarding animal rightsÃ¢â¬ (Marquis). In other words, his essay is about the immorality of abortion and although animal rights is an issue it will not be addressed and should not affect the strength of his argument. Another objection that followed his essay in The Journal of Philosophy is the essay Ã¢â¬Å"Killing, Abortion, and Contraception: A Reply to MarquisÃ¢â¬ by Allastair Norcross. Norcross first defined deprave and deprive, making quite the start to a potential objection claiming that contraception is then no different from abortion according to the theory of a Ã¢â¬Ëfuture like oursÃ¢â¬â¢. He went on to state that, Ã¢â¬Å"Marquis might object at this point that he does not have to argueShow MoreRelatedIs Abortion Moral Or Moral?1018 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesbreath. The true dilemma here is not the accurate pinpointing of lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s beginning, but the questions that accompany this topic and each individuals desire to do the right thing, the moral thing. While one point of view allows for abortion the other does not. The issue raises many questions of morality. Is abortion moral? When does it become murder? When is it permissible? (Life of the mother at stake / A product of rape). S hould it be the motherÃ¢â¬â¢s choice? Many arguments for both sides pull from scriptureRead MoreAbortion : Ethical And Moral1495 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAbortion Introduction Is it ethical and moral to have an abortion? The definition of abortion is Ã¢â¬Å"deliberate removal or deliberate action to cause the expulsion of a fetus from the womb of a human female, at the request of or through the agency of the mother, so as in fact to result in the death of the fetusÃ¢â¬ (Merriam-Webster, 2016). What about the morality of un-coerced, human abortion for our purposes abortions are voluntary, deliberate removals of a human fetus (Objections to Warren, 2016)Read MoreThe Moral Issue Of Abortion987 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMoral Issue of Abortion There are many moral topics people can chose to debate about. One of the most popular ones is abortion and whether it is morally right or if it is morally wrong. Personally I believe abortion is morally wrong. The main reason is taking another persons life. There are many causes and outcomes that can take place. First, the main point of sexual intercourse is reproduction so if the two people create a child they are morally in charge of protecting the new life being createdRead MoreThe Moral Issue Of Abortion Essay1134 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe moral issue that is selected in the essay is about abortion. Abortion a standard ethical issue often discussed in moral philosophy. It is a matter that is raised when talking about issues of the beginning of life. The biggest problem that surrounds this concerns the life of the fetus or the unborn child. On whether it has a right to life or whether the mother of the unborn fetus has a right to terminate it or not. A lot of controversies has su rrounded this area of the debate, and it is the basisRead MoreMoral Standing on Abortion1087 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMarch 2014 Moral Standing on Abortion To say that a person has moral standing is to give consideration to his or her wellbeing. According to Robert M. VeatchÃ¢â¬â¢s The Basic of Bioethics, moral standing is believed to be Ã¢â¬Å"that humans (at least normal humans) have moral standing [as well as] other animalsÃ¢â¬ (27). Moral standing is determined by the physical or mental capacities of self-awareness or rationality. However, controversy arises when determining when one actually has full moral standing. AbortionRead MoreThe Moral Permissibility Of Abortion Essay1485 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe moral permissibility of abortion other than if necessary to save the life of the mother does not depend on whether the fetus is a person. This essay examines the argument to why abortion is morally permissible and defends this notion using three central impressions, to which the essay is organized by the following: first, abortion does not depend on whether the fetus is a person, because the fetus is not a person. Second, the moral permissibility of abortion cannot be exclusively contingent inRead MoreThe Moral Permissibility Of Abortion974 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMoral Permissibility of Abortion Abortion has been a debating issue for many decades. Most of the countries, permit abortion, however, some religions and countries consider abortion to be morally and ethically impermissible. In Canada, the abortion was legalized in 1988 based on the fact that the law should not force a women to carry a fetus beyond her priorities as it would interfere with her body and her own securities towards life. Many would argue against this view by stating that a fetus doesRead MoreAbortion is Moral Essay1017 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageslife marked by such severe oppression. Drawing on the views of Rosalind Hursthouse regarding virtue ethics and abortion, and applying her ideas to the aforementioned scenario, we can assess how virtue theory would deliberate this particular moral problem. Hursthouses theory, in application to this scenario, should stand up to criticism without weakening its application to morals. Abortion, when considered with the Ã¢â¬Å"right attitudeÃ¢â¬ and carried out for good reason given the circumstances, can be theRead MoreThe Ethics And Morals Of Abortion Essay1643 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Ethics and Morals of Abortion Abortion, as it is, is a method to terminate a pregnancy by removing a fetus or an embryo out of the womanÃ¢â¬â¢s uterus. It is one of the most controversial problematic issues that is discussed throughout the decades. The topic of abortion was considered as a social issue that soon became a political and ethical subject. Abortion have become a heated public distribute on whether its method are morally permissible or not? Individuals have voiced the benefits and disadvantagesRead MoreIs Abortion A Moral Thing?844 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWhen it comes to the ongoing debate on whether abortion is a moral thing to do or not, it is often hard to come to a conclusion on which way of thinking is right or wrong or if any way of thinking is wrong to begin with. In the case of Immanuel KantÃ¢â¬â¢s various arguments in the novel Ground for the metaphysics of morals, I believe that Kant would feel that it would be a morally permissible thing to do to abort a fetus, and I feel this way due to his opinions on the differences between a person and
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The average life expectancy of the global population in year 2015 is projected to be 71.4 years. According to the global health observatory data 2015, published by the WHO an increase of 5 years in life expectancy has been observed between 2000 and 2015. This is by far the fastest increase since the 1960s. We owe the increase in life expectancy to the advance in the field of medicine, raised global health awareness and the joint efforts of local, national and international bodies around the world. We are better equipped to fight diseases than we ever were with access to life saving medicines, surgical interventions and vaccines But does longevity really mean better health? We are definitely living longer than our ancestors but various research data, statistics and global health reports suggest that our generation is in fact unhealthier than previous generations. Over the last century, diseases like tetanus, rabies, whooping cough, measles, yellow fever which were considered a death warrant have been rendered preventable because of vaccinations. . WHO declared that small pox was eradicated in the year 1979, rhinderpest in 2011 and polio has been eradicated from most parts of the world with exception of Pakistan, Afganistan and Nigeria. in the early 1970s.The health workers were able to contain these diseases by tools provided to them ,like better sanitary sewage disposal ,cleaner drinking water, insect vector control, development of newer vaccines and potentShow MoreRelatedThe Ageing Of Global Population1692 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWorld Aging Population The ageing of global population is an important issue that has been debated recently. To think about a better and longer life seems too attractive for us, but the impact of a generalized increase of age can be a problem for the government s policies and for the maintenance of the economy. This phenomenon is occurring right now in almost every country in the world, but faster in the developed and developing countries. The purpose of this paper is to study the population ageing,Read MoreHow do Life Expectancy, Maternal and Infant Health Changfe Around the World and in Time?1528 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSTATISTICS: HOW DO LIFE EXPECTANCY, MATERNAL AND INFANT HEALTH CHANGE AROUND THE WORLD AND IN TIME ? Ã¢â¬Å" We are living longer and healthierÃ¢â¬ state World Health Organization ( WHO) and all world organizations. Population health is becoming better all over the world and therefore people everywhere are living longer. Life expectancy is the most commonly used measure to describe population health, others are for instance mortality and morbidity. I will consider life expectancy, maternal mortality andRead MoreEssay on Difference in High, Middle and Low Income Countries.1111 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthat residents have received from abroad, minus income claimed by nonresidents divided by its population.(How We Classify Countries,) This measure is an indication of how well the population in a country lives. When comparing country income levels there are several differences that can be found between each group, listed in order of examination they are GNP per capita, political stability, life expectancy, and access to education. High income countries have a GNP per capita of $12,196 or higherRead MoreThe Global Spatial Pattern Of Aging Populations Essay1282 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe global spatial pattern of aging populations is a nucleated pattern; there is a cluster of countries with a median age of over 40 in Europe, and two outliers; in Japan and Canada. All of these countries are in the Northern Hemisphere. The countries in Europe with a median age of over 40 are Norway, Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Bulgaria, Greece, Serbia, Hungary, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Slovenia, Austria, Italy, Czech Republic, Germany, Belgium, Netherlands, Denmark, UnitedRead MorePopulation Size, Fertility And Mortality, And Age Structures Essay935 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesexpansion of human population. Over four billion been added to the world population since 1960. In addition, the projection highly increased for the next half century will expect a highly divergent world. The stagnation or a potential decli ne in parts of the developed regions, other demographic processes are also undergoing extraordinary change: WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s fertility has dropped rapidly and life expectancy has increasing to new level. Fertility and mortality have led to very young populations in high fertilityRead MoreNigeria s Strong Economic Track Record Burden Of Disease877 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSub-Saharan country in Africa and has a population of around 173 million people. The population is very diverse. It has over 200 ethnic groups, with three tribes known as the Yoruba (West), Ibo (East), and the Hausa (North). These tribes speak nearly 500 different indigenous languages (World Health Organization, 2015). Nigeria has the largest natural gas reserves in Africa and is also the biggest oil exporter on the continent. What this means in terms of global health is that Nigeria has the largestRead MoreThe Effects Of Drug Vaccination On United States Citizens Essay1330 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageswith international entities to help undeveloped nations improve population health but face challenges managing and eliminating illnesses at home and abroad. Life Expectancy as a Wellness Metric A report published by the Orgainsation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) identifies lifespan as key societal wellness barometer.  The group is a forum created to improve financial, physical and mental wellbeing for all global citizens.  Through the organization, governments collaborateRead MoreHigh Rates Of Poverty : Sierra Leone Essay1161 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages The total population of Sierra Leone hovers around 6,453,000, with about 1,004,000 of these children under five years old. The majority population is poor, with a GDP per capita at 1,600 USD, which ranks them in place 214 when compared globally. According to a 2004 estimate, 70.2% of the population is below the poverty line. Although Sierra Leone as country is fairly resource-rich, with resources including mining for diamonds and bauxite, Ã¢â¬Å"nearly half of the working-age population engages in subsistenceRead MoreCanada s Current Issue Of Canada1729 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCurrently, CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s e conomic base is quite strong considering its developed status and demographic factors. These include the birth rate death rate, GDP, natural increase rate, dependancy load, life expectancy, etc. Also, I will explain the current immigration situation in Canada, its importance, and its potential future, as well as further factors that may effect the immigration to Canada. I will also briefly write about CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s First Nation people, their current situation residing in Canada, andRead MoreThe Growth Of The World Population1071 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesconsidering the growth of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s population there Is a concentrated look at Four Main factors with a fifth element now ,slowly becoming a large factor.They are fertility rates, mortality rates (life expectancy), the initial age profile of the population (whether it is comparatively old or relatively young to begin with), migration, and now religion, where focus is placed on migrating to or from a particular faction. The forces behind population change Population Change:A view at Growth Fertility
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: How to Analyze and Resolve the Dilemma. Answer: Dilemma for Sally The dilemma that Sally is involved in revolves around the fact that she must exercise objectivity and accountability in her services. At the same time, she does not want to lose the hard earned reputation of the government that she is working for due to the allegation and the closure that has followed the event. Sally thus has to take steps that will somehow take the two into consideration which most likely will form conflicting events(Pollock 2014). At this juncture, Thomas methodology of analyzing and resolving conflicts will be significant. Sally needs to analyze the dilemma first through analyzing the consequences of the steps that she wants to take. That is which side will be favored and which side will be deprived if a certain step is considered. In addition, what are the benefits that will be accrued if a given resolution strategy is taken into consideration? Sally needs to take into consideration the short term and the long term effects of the actions that are to be utilized. After considering all the alternatives that are available it is now essential to choose the best alternative, that is the option that has the highest number of benefits as compared to the harms that it will pose(Thomas 2017). The next step involves analyzing the actions. Here, consequences are secluded from the equation. At this point, only the actions are looked at. That is; what is the morality of the actions that are to be utilized to resolve the ethical issue. That is, are they honest, fair and respectful to others? Or do they have the element of equity? It is also significant for Sally to check if any of the ethical principles are conflicting, and if they are conflicting, how she can resolve to accomplish one ethical principle that is paramount and with limited problems. The last step is to come up with a decision(Thomas 2017). That is the two basic analysis parts of the steps should be considered and a decision arrived at. The decision that she selects should be that with can be achieved in a strategic manner. Recommendations for Sally Sally needs to prove that she respected the information of others. According to the ACS, employers should ensure that they respect the proprietary nature of the information that belongs to others. Sally needs to communicate this to Han so that he can put this into account when rendering web development services. In addition, ACS describes that an employer needs to advise his employees on the most likely conflicts of interests that arise in the line of duty. Sally needs to consider this for Han may not be aware of what is required of him when it comes to publishing(Leicester 2016). The code of ethics stipulates that these priorities should be taken into consideration. It is essential due to the fact that it will help reduce the ethical dilemmas and also ensure abidance to the ethical principles. To add on, giving advice is a sign of responsibility that will reduce the occurrences of suppressions and penalties. Moreover, it is essential for managers to give detailed information to their staff on ethical principles and what is required of them so that unethical practices can be reduced to a greater extent. Lastly, Sally needs to be accountable to the allegations made and communicate to the court on what steps she will take to ensure that the ethical issue does not recur(Warren, M., Warren, M., Lucas, R. and Lucas, R. 2016). Accountability will showcase adherence to the ethical principles to detest from showcasing irresponsible behaviors. Bibliography Leicester, N 2016, Ethics in the IT Profession: Does a Code of Ethics have an Effect onProfessional Behaviour? Pollock, JM 2014, Ethical dilemmas and decisions in criminal justice, Nelson Education. Thomas, W 2017, Ethics, and Business, viewed 2 September 2017,www.ethicsandbusiness.org. Warren, M., Warren, M., Lucas, R. and Lucas, R. 2016, 'Ethics and ICT: Why all the fuss?',Journal of Information, Communication, and Ethics in Society, vol 14, no. 2, pp. 167-169.
Monday, April 13, 2020
Shouldn't this book be a study of narration? It is so simple at times that you feel that you little brother might have written it ("The cab stopped in front of the hotel and we all got out and went in. It was a nice hotel, and the people at the desk were very cheerful, and we each had a good small room") but then there is an honesty that comes through. This honesty combines with the honesty of the Hemingway characters to face the real, meaningless(?) life which lies in front of them--it may be simple but it is so real ("I could not find the bathroom. After awhile I found it."), and a simple description is often a profound description. Although Gertrud Stein warned him that "remarks are not literature", this writing went on to influence American short story writing for decades. This book made me look at language ("I read the papers with the coffee and then smoked a cigarette.") Language is a series of symbols which excite meanings in our readers. Simple language does this well. This book reminded me a lot of Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby ("I'm going to marry him. Funny, I haven't thought about him for a week.") Is it a true cross between The Great Gatsby and On the Road? It is a 20th century novel. I can't stand it to think my life is going so fast and I'm not really living it. Don't you ever get the feeling that all your life is going by and you're not taking advantage of it? Do you realize you've lived nearly half the time you have to live already? I liked the descriptions. Many had a double meaning, were vague, nice: With her mouth closed she was a rather pretty girl. I was a little drunk. Not drunk in any positive sense but just enough to be careless. She was built with curves like the hull of a racing yacht, and you missed none of it with that wool jersey. She was sitting up now. My arm was around her and she was leaning back against me, and we were quite calm. She was looking into my eyes with that way she had of looking that made you wonder whether she really saw out of her own eyes. They would look on and on after every one else's eyes in the world would have stopped looking. She looked as though there were nothing on earth she would not look at like that, and really she was afraid of so many things. He was a youngfellow and he held the wine bottle at full arms' length and raised it high up, squeezing the leather bag with his hand so the stream of wine hissed into his mouth. He held the bag out there, the wine making a flag, hard trajectory into his mouth, and he kepton swallowing smoothly and regularly. It was like certain dinners I remember from the war. There was much wine,an ignored tension, and a feeling of things coming that you could not prevent happening. Under the wine I lost the disgusted feeling and was happy. Itseemed they were all such nice people. Somebody was teaching Bill a song. Singing it into his ear. Beating time on Bill's back. The philosophy of this book is "face life like it is." They are the lost generation because they are striving to find an order for their world, a world that has been shattered. Their hope is to create a ritual like that of the bull fighters in order to give their life meaning. At worst, they merely have the courage to see that they are forlorn. They are "hemmed in by a birth they did not choose and a death toward which they must inexorably move." The excessive drinking of the entire group is symptomatic of their dread of cold reality. I liked Brett just like I liked Daisy in The Great Gatsby. She was pagan yet pseudo-cultured, and never serious. Even she participates in The Hemingway Code: hold a fatalistic acceptance of the difficulties of life play along and don't make trouble for people avoid self-pity use some form of private ritual in order to handle anxiety give in to despair only in Shouldnt This Book Be A Study Of Narration It Is So Simple At Times T Shouldn't this book be a study of narration? It is so simple at times that you feel that you little brother might have written it ("The cab stopped in front of the hotel and we all got out and went in. It was a nice hotel, and the people at the desk were very cheerful, and we each had a good small room") but then there is an honesty that comes through. This honesty combines with the honesty of the Hemingway characters to face the real, meaningless(?) life which lies in front of them--it may be simple but it is so real ("I could not find the bathroom. After awhile I found it."), and a simple description is often a profound description. Although Gertrud Stein warned him that "remarks are not literature", this writing went on to influence American short story writing for decades. This book made me look at language ("I read the papers with the coffee and then smoked a cigarette.") Language is a series of symbols which excite meanings in our readers. Simple language does this well. This book reminded me a lot of Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby ("I'm going to marry him. Funny, I haven't thought about him for a week.") Is it a true cross between The Great Gatsby and On the Road? It is a 20th century novel. I can't stand it to think my life is going so fast and I'm not really living it. Don't you ever get the feeling that all your life is going by and you're not taking advantage of it? Do you realize you've lived nearly half the time you have to live already? I liked the descriptions. Many had a double meaning, were vague, nice: With her mouth closed she was a rather pretty girl. I was a little drunk. Not drunk in any positive sense but just enough to be careless. She was built with curves like the hull of a racing yacht, and you missed none of it with that wool jersey. She was sitting up now. My arm was around her and she was leaning back against me, and we were quite calm. She was looking into my eyes with that way she had of looking that made you wonder whether she really saw out of her own eyes. They would look on and on after every one else's eyes in the world would have stopped looking. She looked as though there were nothing on earth she would not look at like that, and really she was afraid of so many things. He was a youngfellow and he held the wine bottle at full arms' length and raised it high up, squeezing the leather bag with his hand so the stream of wine hissed into his mouth. He held the bag out there, the wine making a flag, hard trajectory into his mouth, and he kepton swallowing smoothly and regularly. It was like certain dinners I remember from the war. There was much wine,an ignored tension, and a feeling of things coming that you could not prevent happening. Under the wine I lost the disgusted feeling and was happy. Itseemed they were all such nice people. Somebody was teaching Bill a song. Singing it into his ear. Beating time on Bill's back. The philosophy of this book is "face life like it is." They are the lost generation because they are striving to find an order for their world, a world that has been shattered. Their hope is to create a ritual like that of the bull fighters in order to give their life meaning. At worst, they merely have the courage to see that they are forlorn. They are "hemmed in by a birth they did not choose and a death toward which they must inexorably move." The excessive drinking of the entire group is symptomatic of their dread of cold reality. I liked Brett just like I liked Daisy in The Great Gatsby. She was pagan yet pseudo-cultured, and never serious. Even she participates in The Hemingway Code: hold a fatalistic acceptance of the difficulties of life play along and don't make trouble for people avoid self-pity use some form of private ritual in order to handle anxiety give in to despair only in
Wednesday, March 11, 2020
Women in Australian history 1901 - 1945 essays The period from 1901 to 1945 saw Australian women endure many hardships. Due to events that occurred during the period such as the economic boom, the depression, world war one and world war two their were many advancements making the lives of women easier, some classes much more then others. These include the technology that became available, changes in fashions, and greater equality in the workforce and on the political scene. Through dividing the period up and looking at each part, I will establish that life was slightly better for Australian women at the end of the period as apposed to the beginning. At the time of federation women did not fare well at all. Women were forced to work long hours for little pay. In 1901 women made up 20.1% of the workforce, however, to them the basic wage did not apply. They received only around half of that given to men for the same task. For most, marriage was an economic necessity, however, when married, wives were dominated by their husbands and suffered loss of their economic independence. Women at home worked a 6-day week with no access to labour saving devices. Wives of rural workers lived particularly hard lives being frequently left on their own to look after the children. There were very few women who played major roles in society. Women dressed very formally and the beginning of the century wearing hats, long dresses and gloves when going out, along with corsets and petticoats. This made day to day life very difficult for many women. After the first ten years following federation, some progress towards equality was made. Women started to work in professions, despite the vast majority continuing to be employed in factories, as domestic servants or remaining at home. Women still dominated the lower paid jobs despite protective legislation and few achieved management positions. Australia was the second country in the world to give women the right to vote and stand in Feder...
Monday, February 24, 2020
Case Analysis (Legal Methods) - Essay Example The plaintiff sustained injuries as a result of the crash and attempted o claim compensation from the defendants on the grounds that they owed him a duty to ensure that the animals could not escape and get onto the highway where they might cause an accident. The area where the horses were kept did have a fence around them and it was not possible to reach a conclusion how the horses has managed to escape from the field. The fence had been flattened by the exiting horses and the judge came to the conclusion that the horses must have become frightened by someone or something and had bolted through the fence. The judge came to this decision despite lack of any concrete proof that this might be the case on the basis that the horses had never attempted to escape previously. Initially the plaintiff asserted a claim in negligence and under the Animals Act 1971. The negligence claim failed on the grounds that the animals were usually docile and the fence under such circumstances was adequate for its purpose. Judge OÃ¢â¬â¢Malley felt that the defendants had maintained an adequate state of repair to the enclosure and that the fencing was not below the standard required of a Ã¢â¬Ëreasonably careful and prudent ownerÃ¢â¬â¢. It was therefore necessary for the plaintiff to rely on the strict liability for the damage under the Animals Act. Given that the defendants had been found not guilty of negligence the plaintiff had to rely on proving the horses were dangerous. The difficulty with this was that the horses were generally docile and had never previously escaped nor injured anyone. As the Act does not list horses as a dangerous species then the reliance was on Act which states "(2) Where damage is caused by an animal which does not belong to a dangerous species, a keeper of the animal is liable for the damage, except as otherwise provided by this Act, if-(a) the damage is of a kind which the animal,